Nanotechnology medicine has been around for decades. However, it has garnered more attention in the past few years. With new diseases getting discovered, the need for a better cure process became apparent. Nanomedicine addresses most diseases, even in their current form. With new developments, medical experts expect a further breakthrough in the field.
Scientists and institutions are making attempts to reduce the risks associated with this ever-evolving technique. Studies are underway to ensure more accuracy and more efficiency in treating various diseases using technology. Advanced improvements could treat even highly infectious and deadly ailments such as HIV, diabetes, and hepatitis-B.
The success and results the nanomedicine technology generates have reposed confidence among scientists and researchers for more sophisticated systems. Many countries are investing heavily to come up with improved nanomedicines and serve the world better. Even IT businesses have stepped up by providing cutting-edge software and associated solutions to the healthcare sector.
With the discovery of new diseases, the advent of modern techniques becomes imperative. Although traditional methods exist, not all of them can cater to the ever-evolving needs of the medical industry. After years of research and development, innovators introduced healthcare nanotechnology. The use of this cutting-edge technology offers exciting possibilities.
Nano means one-billionth of something. In plain words, it is 40,000 times thinner than the diameter of human hair. Nanotechnology medicine involves the applications of nanoparticles for delivering drugs, light, or heat to specific cell types such as cancer cells. The nanoparticles are designed in such a way that they get attracted to the diseased cells, which ensures direct treatment of the damaged cells. Nanotechnology minimises the risk of damage to healthy cells and allows earlier detection of problems.
What is nanomedicine?
It refers to the domain of science that blends nanotechnology with diagnostic molecules or drugs to enhance the ability to target particular tissues or cells. Engineered on a nanoscale level, these materials are safer to institute into the body. The technology has wide usage and applications today. From diagnosis and imaging to drug delivery, the technique helps medical experts treat numerous diseases.
The potency of nanomedicine
Nanomedicine employs nanotechnology for innovation in the healthcare arena. It taps the properties of a material at its nanometric scale which vary in terms of chemistry, biology, or physics from the same material on its bigger scale.
Furthermore, many biological mechanisms found in the body favor the nanometric size. So, nanomaterials and nanoparticles easily cross barriers to explore new sites for drug delivery or treatment. Moreover, the interaction with small proteins or DNA at different levels within organs, cells, or tissues and in the blood becomes feasible.
The surface-to-volume ratio tends to be an intrinsic measure of the potential action of the material or particle. The functioning of material surfaces and the coating of particles enhance the biocompatibility of the said particle. Also, its circulation time in the blood increases, thus ensuring an extremely selective and effective binding to the target.
Healthcare nanotechnology has the potency to enable early detection as well as the prevention of many diseases. With nanomedicine, diagnosis, cure, and follow-up of diseases improve. Even critical conditions such as cancer can be effectively diagnosed, prevented, and treated using this innovative technique.
Nanomedicine has hundreds of products in clinical trials covering major issues related to musculoskeletal, neurodegenerative, and cardiovascular genres. Nanomedicine accounts for about 80 marketed products enabling technology in most healthcare areas. It covers a wider horizon from pharmaceutical and nano delivery to medical imaging, biomaterials, and diagnostics.
How nanotechnology medicine works
Nanotechnology medicine opens horizons for manipulating properties and structures at the nanoscale. It provides medical experts with a nano lab to address cell components, pieces of DNA, or viruses using an array of tiny tools such as tubes, robots, and others.
Researchers prioritise therapies involving individual gene manipulation or molecular pathways to address critical ailments efficiently. The likelihood of tailor-made solutions is a highly-sought goal of most genetic experts. Nanotechnology comes as a boon for scientists. Experts can break down any section of DNA for examination and operation.
It is now possible to build nanorobots that can walk on the DNA and repair the minute parts of the cell without damaging other tissues. Technology aims at transforming a scientific dream into reality.
Companies manufacturing nanomedicines show a keen interest in increasing the ability of healthcare nanotechnology in targeting specific tissues or cells. Here, nanoparticles are attached to liposomes or drugs to improve specific localisation. Each type of cell carries unique properties. So, it is easy to use nanotechnologies to identify cells of interest. That allows therapeutics and drugs to get to diseased tissue without damaging healthy cells.
In the process, the ill-behavior cell is accessed and treated while avoiding other tissues. It is a promising area of research, but very few nanomedicines that use this technology exist. The reason for limited success is attributed to ill-defined parameters related to pairing the right ratio. The wrong combination of nanomaterial with the intended drug is another reason. Yet, researches are in the pipeline to address the barriers and pave the path for speedy progress.
Controlled drug release
The release of the drug plays a vital role in curing any disease. However, some medicines release in an uncontrolled manner, triggering a series of ill-effects on the health of the patient. Also, the efficacy of the drug reduces in the process. Even worse, the immunity system gets impacted, thereby slowing down the healing tenure.
To combat the issue, scientists and researchers felt the need for controlled drug release. Nanoparticles can do this task. This specific area of research is still in its infancy stage. However, its implementation has shown proven results.
The idea of triggered release can be obtained from outside the body or within the bodily system. Internal mechanisms encompass changes in the tumours’ environment compared to the surrounding tissue. External stimuli, on the other hand, include light, ultrasound, or temperature changes.
Currently, efforts are directed to understand the release of drugs and diagnostic molecules from liposomes using heat and micro-bubbles from the ultrasound. A breakthrough in this area will boost medicine efficacy. With better results, many surgeries could be substituted by medicine.
Cancer treatments cover the largest area for nanomedicines. Patients now benefit from modified chemotherapy that uses nanocarriers to reduce systemic toxicity and boost therapeutic efficacy. Doxil and Abraxane are notable examples of cancer nanomedicines that attained clinical success.
Compared to traditional Doxorubicin, Doxil demonstrated enhanced efficacy and improved safety. The present Doxil formulation includes Doxorubicin in liposomes with 100 nm in diameter. It minimises Doxorubicin’s cardiotoxicity by reducing the drug’s peak cardiac level.
Similarly, Abraxane got approval for treating refractory breast cancer. The traditional Paclitaxel poorly solves in aqueous solutions. To resolve the issue, the formulation was modified to include ethanol and Cremophor EL. However, this formulation has severe side effects.
So, a new alternative was sought. Nanomedicine technology resolves the problem efficiently. Abraxane’s nanoformulation contains Alumnibound 130-nm form of Paclitaxel. It eliminates the need for Cremophor. Additionally, the new drug dissolves in 30 minutes compared to conventional medicine that takes 3 hours.
Abelcet, Amphoteric, and AmBisome are other popular nanoformulations used for curing fungal infections. Today, many surgeries involve nanorobots. The list of applications is endless and ready to increase with time.
Nanomedicine has an impact on the entire medical sector
Nanomedicine technology is considered an important enabling instrument for targeted, personalised, and regenerative medicine. It covers the next level of drugs, implantable devices, and treatments to patients and clinicians for a unique breakthrough in healthcare.
Additionally, nanomedicine presents new tools to battle the big challenge the aging population faces. The technique is supposed to provide cost-effective and improved healthcare solutions for seniors combating multiple diseases.
Healthcare nanotechnology resolves most of the medical challenges
The world is still battling a slew of complex ailments such as cardiovascular issues, cancer, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and Parkinson’s disease. Beyond that, the challenges presented by inflammatory and infectious diseases such as HIV stand unresolved. Most of these conditions have a tremendous effect on the patient and the whole society. Facing these plaques with suitable means is imperative to save mankind.
Nanomedicine technology can address many such conditions. It raises expectations and hopes for millions of people for better, effective, and affordable healthcare. Also, the technology is capable of delivering appropriate solutions to various ailments. Whether it is diagnosis and disease monitoring or regenerative medicines and chemotherapy, the technique impacts the entire medical field.
Many sections of medical care are already harvesting the advantages of technology. Today, the market has nanotechnology-based drug delivery systems. Even better, hundreds of trials are underway and soon to hit the market. Diagnostics at the nanoscale is probably the most attractive arena of nanomedicine.
Identifying the diseases at an early stage is the key to treatment, especially for cancer and other deadly diseases that become incurable at an advanced stage. Even a single ill-behavior cell could damage the whole immunity system, if not checked early. Nanotechnology medicine ensures any issues get diagnosed and detected early for timely elimination and cure.
Today, the concept of regenerative medicine gives new hopes for those with organ failure and severe injuries. Artificial bone, skin, and cartilage are partly on the market to address these conditions. Not just that, many such artificial organs are in the development process. Healthcare nanotechnology gives a boost to regenerative medicine through effective imaging and efficient targeting for desired results.
What is nanomedicine technology – a leap forth in the medical future
Although the technology has shown promising results on various conditions, risks are assessed for further improvements. Like medical devices and drugs, the safety of this cutting-edge technology is regulated to counter-weigh any undesirable incidents. Nanomedicines undergo thorough toxicity assessment, characterisation, and clinical trials for their risk/benefit evaluation.
Yet, it’s essential to examine responsible care and tackle possible side effects as and when they come up. Numerous nations have already adopted this technique, with European countries at the forefront. With IT solutions from popular companies, healthcare nanotechnology is all set to cure deadly diseases in the coming decades.